Italien scheiterte nach dem Vorrundenaus bei der WM , nachdem und errang bei der WM mit Italien den WM-Titel. Fußball (italienisch: Calcio: Fußtritt, von calciare: treten) ist in Italien die populärste Sportart. Bei den Weltmeisterschaften war Italien mal vertreten und gewann viermal den Titel (, , und ). Außerdem wurde die .. Enzo Bearzot, Niederlage im Elfmeterschießen des letzten EM-Spiels um Platz 3. Juli Portugal schnappt sich bei der UEM den Titel. In einem turbulenten Finale ringen die Portugiesen Italien in der Verlängerung nieder. Und Casino royale karlsbad einfach überragend. Ansonsten wurden durchgehend gute Ergebnisse erzielen, wie die Testspielsiege gegen England 1: Inzwischen gibt es Pläne verschiedener Vereine, neue Tipico anmelden zu errichten oder vorhandene zu renovieren. Creare un thread se si desidera un poker geld verdienen separato da questo post. Coppa Italia Lega Pro. Minuten mussten wir mit 10 Mann zu Ende spielen, weil wir nicht amerika wahlergebnisse wechseln konnten. Deutschland verliert gegen Frankreich. Verein, den ich leverkusen vs leipzig CL-Titel führte. Mit dem Ausscheiden der italienischen Mannschaft verlängerte sich Donadonis Vertrag nicht und er musste seinen Platz räumen. Für die Gruppenauslosung am Grundsätzlich ist also ein Durchmarsch von einer regionalen Buster deutsch, bis in die Profiliga möglich für den Aufstieg in die Profiliga, also die Serie C2 müssen jedoch zusätzliche Kriterien erfüllt sein, wie Mindestanzahl an Sitzplätzen in den Stadien, finanzielle Kriterien …. Video Räumung des Hambacher Forstes wird fortgesetzt.
Italien Em Titel Video1. Halbfinale: Italien - England - TV total Autoball Das wird sicher ein geiles Finale: In diesem Turnier spielten europäische Teams in einem Zeitraum von zwei Jahren gegeneinander. Serie Bundeskliga Girone I 18 Vereine. Im zweiten Spiel gegen Kroatien gelang ebenfalls nur ein 1: Die Jugendspieler treten daher unter dem Vereinsnamen der Profis in eigenen Jugendmannschaften an und ermitteln einen eigenen Dortmund gegen schalke 2019.
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em titel italien - understand thisMinute erzielten die Tore für die Furia Roja. Prandelli hat wohl einfach Schiss bekommen ähnlich wie Löw vs Italia und das Spiel war praktisch ab dem ersten Tor der Spanier entschieden. In der Qualifikation an Nordirland gescheitert. Italien und Kroatien gewannen beide je sieben Spiele, spielten zweimal remis und verloren ein Spiel. Out Calabria, Di Biagio chiama Dickmann. Ab dem Achtelfinale gilt das K. An der EM nahmen erstmals 24 Mannschaften teil. Het is niet gebruikelijk het woord emeritus voor een gepensioneerd hoogleraar aan die aanspreektitel toe te voegen. Auch Leonardo Bonucci und Gianluigi Buffon standen unter dem Verdacht an Spielabsprachen beteiligt gewesen zu sein, best casino games for pc free download jedoch beide mit today football results Team zum Turnier. Retrieved 26 November music hall casino flash Die ersten beiden Teams aus jeder Gruppe zogen in das Viertelfinale ein. Auch dies blieb ungeahndet, da es der Unparteiische ovo casino vip wagte, einen Chilenen vom Platz zu stellen. The Guardia di FinanzaEnglish: They are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture. Archived from the original PDF on 29 April The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italyaccording to Antiochus of Syracusethe southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggioand part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Spiel mobile Valentia. Archived from the original on 16 July
Italien em titel - finalDie Serie A ist die höchste Spielklasse. Aber diesmal hatte Italien keine Chance und verlor mit 0: Gegen diese musste man im ersten Gruppenspiel auch antreten und zeigte beim 1: Mit neun Siegen und zwei Remis wurde vor den Franzosen Platz 1 belegt, die damit aber auch für die Endrunde qualifiziert waren. Darunter folgen, hierarchisch organisiert fünf weitere Stufen: November , davon am häufigsten in Rom und Mailand je 58 mal. Bei der Endrunde fand nun erstmals eine Gruppenphase statt, bei der je 4 Mannschaften einmal gegen jede andere spielte und die beste Mannschaft jeder Gruppe direkt das Finale erreichte, während die zweitbeste Mannschaft das letztmals ausgetragene Spiel um Platz 3 bestritt.
Das Jahr endete mit einem Sieg gegen Malta und einem 1: Bereits im Auftaktspiel gelang Italien ein 2: Das dritte Gruppenspiel verlor Italien, das mit zahlreichen Ersatzspielern antrat, 0: Im Achtelfinale traf man, wie im Endspiel vier Jahre zuvor, auf Spanien.
Sein Nachfolger wurde Gian Piero Ventura. Mai bis zum Juni gab es einen 8: September verlor Italien das vorentscheidende Qualifikationsspiel um den Gruppensieg in Madrid gegen Spanien mit 0: Dort trafen sie auf Schweden.
Das Hinspiel in Solna endete mit einer 0: Unter Interimstrainer Luigi Di Biagio folgte eine 0: Im ersten Spiel unter Mancini gelang Italien am Mai ein 2: Ein Testspiel in Genua gegen die Ukraine endete ebenfalls ohne Sieger, als beide Mannschaften sich erneut mit einem 1: Italien nahm bisher mal an Weltmeisterschaften teil und konnte viermal den Titel erringen, zuletzt in Deutschland.
Italien nahm achtmal an der Endrunde zur Europameisterschaft teil. Die bislang besten Ergebnisse waren der erste Platz im Jahr und der zweite Platz im Jahr und Italien hat folgende Bilanzen [B 1] gegen andere Nationalmannschaften mind.
Die italienische Nationalmannschaft hat kein Nationalstadion wie z. Lange Zeit lag ein infrastrukturelles Problem vor, da die Stadien seit der WM kaum renoviert wurden.
Die Ergebnisse werden aus italienischer Sicht dargestellt Stand: November in Genk bekannt. November fiel Federico Bernardeschi Juventus Turin kurzfristig aus.
Sonstige National- und Auswahlmannschaften in Europa: Dezember , abgerufen am Das Jahrhundertspiel abgerufen am Lopetegui mit gutem Start - Frankreich siegt in Bari.
Olympia Verlag GmbH, 1. September , abgerufen am Oktober , abgerufen am Olympia Verlag GmbH, November , abgerufen am 5. Belotti nur an den Pfosten - Klassiker bleibt torlos.
November , abgerufen am Doppelter Videobeweis in Frankreich - Italien siegt. Mai , abgerufen am 8. Olympia Verlag GmbH, 7.
Juni , abgerufen am 8. Islands Schulter-Schluss - Spanien bleibt vor Italien. September , abgerufen am 3. Olympia Verlag GmbH, 5.
FIGC , abgerufen am Udinese made it, Dacia Arena inaugurated abgerufen am Out Calabria, Di Biagio chiama Dickmann. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
In anderen Projekten Commons Wikinews. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Januar um Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio. Weltmeister , , , Weltmeister , Olympiasieger , Weltmeister Piercarlo Beretta , Giuseppe Meazza.
Italy has a very high level of human development , and it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, and it is both a regional power   and a great power.
As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 54 World Heritage Sites , the most in the world , and is the fifth-most visited country.
Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf". Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus ,  mentioned also by Aristotle  and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy , according to Antiochus of Syracuse , the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula corresponding to the modern province of Reggio , and part of the provinces of Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia.
But by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region, but the Peninsula and its borders expanded over time.
Later the term was extended by Romans to include the Italian Peninsula up to the Rubicon , a river located between Northern and Central Italy.
It was during the reign of Emperor Augustus that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula until the Alps. Thousands of Palaeolithic -era artifacts have been recovered from Monte Poggiolo and dated to around , years before the present, making them the oldest evidence of first hominins habitation in the peninsula.
Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period some , years ago,  while modern Humans appeared about 40, years ago.
Archaeological sites from this period include Addaura cave , Altamura , Ceprano , and Gravina in Puglia.
The main historic peoples of possible non-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans , the Elymians and the Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians , who gave birth to the Nuragic civilisation.
Other ancient populations being of undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European origin include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni , known for their rock carvings in Valcamonica , the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.
The first foreign colonizers were the Phoenicians , who initially established colonies and founded various emporiums on the coasts of Sicily and Sardinia.
Some of these soon became small urban centers and were developed parallel to the Greek colonies; among the main centers there were the cities of Motya , Zyz modern Palermo , Soluntum in Sicily and Nora , Sulci , and Tharros in Sardinia.
Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy     and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that became known as Magna Graecia.
The Greek colonization placed the Italic peoples in contact with democratic government forms and with elevated artistic and cultural expressions.
Rome , a settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustus , began a golden age of peace and prosperity.
The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome and the metropole of the empire, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ".
The Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world of its time, and it was one of the largest empires in world history.
At its height under Trajan , it covered 5 million square kilometres. The Western Empire , under the pressure of the barbarian invasions , eventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer , while the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years.
The invasion of another Germanic tribe , the Lombards , late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years.
Invasions of the peninsula caused a chaotic succession of barbarian kingdoms and the so-called " dark ages ".
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy.
Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding with the former Ghibellines or with the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
However, the conflict for the investiture controversy a conflict over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to ecclesiastical offices and the clash between Guelphs and Ghibellines led to the end of the Imperial-feudal system in the north of Italy where city-states gained independence.
It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy See , local communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.
In a league of city-states, the Lombard League , defeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano , thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power.
Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy , the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
The four most prominent maritime republics were Venice , Genoa , Pisa and Amalfi. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.
The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades , providing support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.
In the south, Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century, thriving until the Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century together with most of the Lombard and Byzantine principalities of southern Italy.
In Sardinia , the former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Giudicati , although some parts of the island became controlled by Genoa or Pisa until the Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central Italy was divided into a number of warring city-states , the rest of the peninsula being occupied by the larger Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicily , referred to here as Naples.
Though many of these city-states were often formally subordinate to foreign rulers, as in the case of the Duchy of Milan , which was officially a constituent state of the mainly Germanic Holy Roman Empire , the city-states generally managed to maintain de facto independence from the foreign sovereigns that had seized Italian lands following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The strongest among these city-states gradually absorbed the surrounding territories giving birth to the Signorie , regional states often led by merchant families which founded local dynasties.
War between the city-states was endemic, and primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri , bands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains.
This peace would hold for the next forty years. The Renaissance , a period of vigorous revival of the arts and culture, originated in Italy due to a number of factors: The Medici became the leading family of Florence and fostered and inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance,   along with other families of Italy, such as the Visconti and Sforza of Milan , the Este of Ferrara , and the Gonzaga of Mantua.
Artists like Leonardo da Vinci , Brunelleschi , Botticelli , Michelangelo , Giotto , Donatello , Titian and Raphael produced inspired works — their paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed those of Classical Antiquity.
Humanist historian Leonardo Bruni divided the history in the antiquity, Middle Ages and modern period. In the meantime, the discovery of the Americas , the new routes to Asia discovered by the Portuguese and the rise of the Ottoman Empire , all factors which eroded the traditional Italian dominance in trade with the East, caused a long economic decline in the peninsula.
Italian explorers and navigators from the dominant maritime republics played a key role in ushering the Age of Discovery and the European colonization of the Americas.
The most notable among them were: Christopher Columbus , who led led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean and Central and South America, and he is credited with discovering the New World and the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans;  John Cabot , the first European to explore parts of the North American continent in ;  Amerigo Vespucci , who first demonstrated in about that the New World was not Asia as initially conjectured, but a fourth continent previously unknown to people of the Old World America is named after him ;   and Giovanni da Verrazzano , renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick in Following the Italian Wars to , ignited by the rivalry between France and Spain, the city-states gradually lost their independence and came under foreign domination, first under Spain to and then Austria to In particular, Southern Italy was impoverished and cut off from the mainstream of events in Europe.
In the 18th century, as a result of the War of Spanish Succession , Austria replaced Spain as the dominant foreign power, while the House of Savoy emerged as a regional power expanding to Piedmont and Sardinia.
The Congress of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the first part of the 19th century.
The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula.
Following the Congress of Vienna in , the political and social Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento , emerged to unite Italy consolidating the different states of the peninsula and liberate it from foreign control.
A prominent radical figure was the patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini , member of the secret revolutionary society Carbonari and founder of the influential political movement Young Italy in the early s, who favoured a unitary republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement.
His prolific output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. The most famous member of Young Italy was the revolutionary and general Giuseppe Garibaldi , renowned for his extremely loyal followers,  who led the Italian republican drive for unification in Southern Italy.
However, the Northern Italy monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Sardinia , whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour , also had ambitions of establishing a united Italian state.
In the context of the liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an unsuccessful first war of independence was declared on Austria. In —, Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily the Expedition of the Thousand ,  while the House of Savoy troops occupied the central territories of the Italian peninsula, except Rome and part of Papal States.
This allowed the Sardinian government to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17 March Finally, in , as France abandoned its garrisons in Rome during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War to keep the large Prussian Army at bay, the Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal States.
The new Kingdom of Italy obtained Great Power status. The Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of Sardinia the Albertine Statute of , was extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in , and provided for basic freedoms of the new State, but electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting.
The government of the new kingdom took place in a framework of parliamentary constitutional monarchy dominated by liberal forces. As Northern Italy quickly industrialised, the South and rural areas of the North remained underdeveloped and overpopulated, forcing millions of people to migrate abroad and fuelling a large and influential diaspora.
The Italian Socialist Party constantly increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and conservative establishment.
In , male universal suffrage was adopted. The pre-war period dominated by Giovanni Giolitti , Prime Minister five times between and , was characterized by the economic, industrial and political-cultural modernization of Italian society.
Starting from the last two decades of the 19th century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing Somalia , Eritrea and later Libya and the Dodecanese under its rule.
The country gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the " Big Four " top Allied powers. The war was initially inconclusive, as the Italian army got stuck in a long attrition war in the Alps, making little progress and suffering very heavy losses.
Eventually, in October , the Italians launched a massive offensive, culminating in the victory of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian victory    marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and was chiefly instrumental in ending the First World War less than two weeks later.
During the war, more than , Italian soldiers and as many civilians died  and the kingdom went to the brink of bankruptcy. The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great War, inspired by the Russian Revolution , led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy.
The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party , led by Benito Mussolini. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship.
These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such as Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain.
In , Italy annexed Albania , a de facto protectorate for decades. During the interwar period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions.
During World War II, Italian war crimes included extrajudicial killings and ethnic cleansing  by deportation of about 25, people, mainly Jews, Croats, and Slovenians, to the Italian concentration camps , such as Rab , Gonars , Monigo , Renicci di Anghiari and elsewhere.
In Italy and Yugoslavia, unlike in Germany, few war crimes were prosecuted. Meanwhile, about , Italians and anti-communist Slavs fled to Italy in the Istrian exodus.
An Allied invasion of Sicily began in July , leading to the collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July. Mussolini was deposed and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III in co-operation with members of the Grand Council of Fascism , who lost faith in him for having led Italy to ruin by allying with Germany.
The Germans helped by the Italian fascists shortly succeeded in taking control of northern and central Italy.
The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, as the Allies were slowly moving up from the south.
The post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance movement , the Resistenza. In late April , with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,  but was captured and summarly executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans.
His body was then taken to Milan , where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
Nearly half a million Italians including civilians died in the conflict,  and the Italian economy had been all but destroyed; per capita income in was at its lowest point since the beginning of the 20th century.
Italy became a republic after a referendum  held on 2 June , a day celebrated since as Republic Day. This was also the first time that Italian women were entitled to vote.
The Republican Constitution was approved on 1 January Italy also lost all of its colonial possessions, formally ending the Italian Empire.
Fears in the Italian electorate of a possible Communist takeover proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on 18 April , when the Christian Democrats , under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi , obtained a landslide victory.
The Marshall Plan helped to revive the Italian economy which, until the late s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the " Economic Miracle ".
From the late s until the early s, the country experienced the Years of Lead , a period characterised by economic crisis especially after the oil crisis , widespread social conflicts and terrorist massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged involvement of US and Soviet intelligence.
In the s, for the first time since , two governments were led by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: In the early s, Italy faced significant challenges, as voters — disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the extensive corruption system known as Tangentopoli uncovered by the Clean Hands investigation — demanded radical reforms.
The scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: During the s and the s, centre-right dominated by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi and centre-left coalitions led by university professor Romano Prodi alternately governed the country.
In the late s, Italy was severely hit by the Great Recession. From to , the country suffered 42 months of GDP recession. The economic crisis was one of the main problems that forced Berlusconi to resign in The government of the conservative Prime Minister was replaced by the technocratic cabinet of Mario Monti.
Following the general election , the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party Enrico Letta formed a new government at the head of a right-left Grand coalition.
The new government started important constitutional reforms such as the abolition of the Senate and a new electoral law. On 4 December the constitutional reform was rejected in a referendum and Renzi resigned after few days on 12 December; the Foreign Affairs Minister Paolo Gentiloni was appointed new Prime Minister.
Italy was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers entering the EU.
Since , the country took in over , migrants and refugees,  mainly from sub-Saharan Africa,  which caused great strain on the public purse and a surge in the support for far-right, euroskeptic or eurocritical political parties,   which ended in the general election.
The election was characterized by a strong showing of the Five Star Movement and the League and the university professor Giuseppe Conte became the Prime Minister at the head of a populist coalition.
To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia , in addition to many smaller islands.
The five largest lakes are, in order of diminishing size: These territories are the comuni of: Apennine landscape in Marche. Coastline of Scoglio il Morto island, Sardinia.
The Scala dei Turchi in Sicily. Four different seas surround the Italian Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea from three sides: Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore Lake Como , known for its environment with prestigious villas, is often cited as the most beautiful lake in the world.
Pink flamingos at Delta of the Po river. The Riviera in Liguria. The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity.
There are 14 volcanoes in Italy , four of which are active: The latter one is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum in the eruption in 79 AD.
Several islands and hills have been created by volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera , the Campi Flegrei north-west of Naples.
Until the s, Italy was the first and only country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity in the Larderello area, and later in the Mount Amiata area.
The high geothermal gradient that forms part of the peninsula makes potentially exploitable also other provinces: After its quick industrial growth, Italy took a long time to confront its environmental problems.
After several improvements, it now ranks 84th in the world for ecological sustainability. However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the s.
Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water levels, Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years.
Waste from industrial activity is not always disposed of by legal means and has led to permanent health effects on inhabitants of affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster.
The country has also operated several nuclear reactors between and but, after the Chernobyl disaster and a referendum on the issue the nuclear programme was terminated, a decision that was overturned by the government in , planning to build up to four nuclear power plants with French technology.
This was in turn struck down by a referendum following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57, species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna.
Italy also receives species from the Balkans , Eurasia , the Middle East. Italian fauna includes endemic animal species, such as the Sardinian long-eared bat , Sardinian red deer , spectacled salamander , Brown cave salamander , Italian cave salamander , Monte Albo cave salamander , Sardinian brook newt , Italian newt , Italian frog , Apennine yellow-bellied toad , Aeolian wall lizard , Sicilian wall lizard , Italian Aesculapian snake , and Sicilian pond turtle.
There are mammals species in Italy , such as the Alpine marmot , Etruscan shrew the smallest mammal in the world , and European snow vole ; notable large mammals are the Italian wolf , Marsican brown bear , Pyrenean chamois , Alpine ibex , rough-toothed dolphin , crested porcupine and Mediterranean monk seal.
Italy has also recorded bird species and invertebrates species. The flora was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5, vascular plant species.
Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to the Italian fauna and flora.
Because of the great longitudinal extension of the peninsula and the mostly mountainous internal conformation, the climate of Italy is highly diverse.
In most of the inland northern and central regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic.
In particular, the climate of the Po valley geographical region is mostly continental, with harsh winters and hot summers. The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer.
Winters can vary widely across the country with lingering cold, foggy and snowy periods in the north and milder, sunnier conditions in the south. Summers can be hot and humid across the country, particularly in the south while northern and central areas can experience occasional strong thunderstorms from spring to autumn.
Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2 June , when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. The President is elected for a single seven years mandate by the Parliament of Italy and some regional voters in joint session.
Italy has a written democratic constitution , resulting from the work of a Constituent Assembly formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi and Fascist forces during the Civil War.
Italy has a parliamentary government based on a mixed proportional and majoritarian voting system. The parliament is perfectly bicameral: The Prime Minister and the cabinet are appointed by the President of the Republic of Italy and must pass a vote of confidence in Parliament to come into office.
To remain the Prime Minister has to pass also eventual further votes of confindence or no confidence in Parliament. The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems , but the leader of the Italian government is not authorised to request the dissolution of the Parliament of Italy.
Another difference with similar offices is that the overall political responsibility for intelligence is vested in the President of the Council of Ministers.
By virtue of that, the Prime Minister has exclusive power to: A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad: In addition, the Italian Senate is characterised also by a small number of senators for life , appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field".
Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. During the general election these three parties won out of seats available in the Chamber of Deputies and out of in the Senate.
The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest court in Italy for both criminal and civil appeal cases.
Since their appearance in the middle of the 19th century, Italian organised crime and criminal organisations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in Southern Italy , the most notorious of which being the Sicilian Mafia , which would later expand into some foreign countries including the United States.
A report identified comuni which have a strong Mafia presence, where 13 million Italians live and These ones are relatively low figures among developed countries.
Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five of which are national, Italian agencies. Along with patrolling, investigative and law enforcement duties, it oversees the security of transportations.
The Carabinieri is the common name for the Arma dei Carabinieri, a Gendarmerie that also serves as the military police for the Italian armed forces.
The Guardia di Finanza , English: Financial Guard is a corps under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance, with a role as police force.
The Corps controls financial, economic, judiciary and public safety. The Polizia Penitenziaria Prison Guards, literally Penitentiary Police operate the Italian prison system and handle the transportation of inmates.
Its recent or upcoming turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in , the G7 in and the EU Council from July to December Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council , the most recently in Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities.
Italy supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilise Iraq , but it had withdrawn its military contingent of some 3, troops by , maintaining only humanitarian operators and other civilian personnel.
Since , military service is voluntary. The Italian Army is the national ground defence force, numbering , in Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle , the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank , and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter , in the last years deployed in EU, NATO and UN missions.
It also has at its disposal a large number of Leopard 1 and M armoured vehicles. The Italian Navy in had 35, active personnel with 85 commissioned ships and aircraft.
The Italian Air Force in had a strength of 43, and operated aircraft, including combat jets and helicopters. While the different branches of the Carabinieri report to separate ministries for each of their individual functions, the corps reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs when maintaining public order and security.
Italy is subdivided into 20 regions regioni , five of these regions having a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some of their local matters.
Italy has a major advanced  capitalist mixed economy , ranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world.
This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products.
Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany The automotive industry is a significant part of the Italian manufacturing sector, with over , firms and almost , employed people in ,  and a contribution of 8.
Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
Italy introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank. A gaping North—South divide is a major factor of socio-economic weakness.
Italy has a strong cooperative sector, with the largest share of the population 4. According to the last national agricultural census, there were 1.
The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures This geographical indication certificate , which is attributed by the European Union , is considered important in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced ersatz products.
In the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about In , about 34,, passenger cars cars per 1, people and 4,, goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.
In Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about , units and a merchant fleet of ships. Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply.
The Galli Law, passed in , aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues.
Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far from sufficient. Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences.
During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci — , Michelangelo — and Leon Battista Alberti — made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering.
Galileo Galilei — , a physicist, mathematician and astronomer, played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model.
Other astronomers suchs as Giovanni Domenico Cassini — and Giovanni Schiaparelli — made many important discoveries about the Solar System.
Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world. Physicist Enrico Fermi — , a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory and was one of the key figures in the creation of the nuclear weapon.
Other prominent physicists include: Antonio Meucci is known for developing a voice-communication device which is often credited as the first telephone.
In biology, Francesco Redi has been the first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described parasites in details and Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy , Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi , whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex , paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine , Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
In chemistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi- meson decay in Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with a total of At the end of , Italy had 60,, inhabitants.
However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Po Valley that accounts for almost a half of the national population and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia are very sparsely populated.
The population of Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian economic miracle of the —s.
High fertility and birth rates persisted until the s, after which they started to decline. The population rapidly aged. At the end of the s decade , one in five Italians was over 65 years old.
From the late 19th century until the s Italy was a country of mass emigration. Between and , the peak years of Italian diaspora , approximately , Italians emigrated each year.
In , Italy had about 5. Starting from the early s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants.
An equally important source of immigration is neighbouring North Africa in particular, Morocco , Egypt and Tunisia , with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring.
Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific notably China  and the Philippines and Latin America have been recorded.
The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in that there might have been half a million or more.
The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in Italy: The official language is Italian. Standardisation was further expanded in the s and s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian.
Twelve historical minority languages are formally recognised: French in the Aosta Valley ;  German in South Tyrol , and Ladin as well in some parts of the same province and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino ; and Slovene in the province of Trieste , Gorizia and Udine.
Because of recent immigration, Italy has sizeable populations whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language. According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics , Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic spoken by over , people; In , the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic was It is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope , who is also the Bishop of Rome , with which diplomatic relations can be maintained.
In , minority Christian faiths in Italy included an estimated 1. One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism , Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ.
Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from other countries, notably Spain. Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths.
There are more than , followers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70, Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country, .
The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand.
Donations are allowed to Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu communities; however, Islam remains excluded, since no Muslim communities have yet signed a concordat with the Italian state.
Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen,  and consists of five stages: Primary education lasts eight years.
Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts.
Secondary education lasts for five years and includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: In , the Italian secondary education was evaluated as slightly below the OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and mathematics results since ;  however, a wide gap exists between northern schools, which performed significantly better than the national average among the best in the world in some subjects , and schools in the South , that had much poorer results.
Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universities , private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools , such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.
The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale , which is organised under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis.
Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9. Life expectancy in Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy.
Later kwam daar de titel ingenieur bij, eveneens met mogelijkheid tot promotie, maar tussen die titels bestaat niet dezelfde taalkundig-historische relatie evenmin als tussen meester mr.
Om die reden blijft de titel ingenieur of meester bij promotie behouden. Wie meerdere malen is afgestudeerd als mr. Hadinga" is bijvoorbeeld correct, echter "ir.
Philipsen" is onjuist, dit dient ir. Indien de titel of graad betrekking hebben op hetzelfde soort opleiding wordt veelal gekozen om de hoogste titel of graad te gebruiken.
Heeft zo iemand bijvoorbeeld een ingenieursopleiding afgerond, eenmaal in de biotechnologie aan het hoger laboratorium onderwijs ing.
Boonstra, en niet ir. Boonstra ook al betreft het verschillende type studies, het zijn beide ingenieursopleidingen.
In de praktijk worden personen nog weleens vermeld als ir. Het voeren van meerdere doctorstitels dr. Bij meerdere doctorstitels wordt dan echter meestal de afkorting mult.
In extreme gevallen kan men hierachter nog tussen haakjes de - waar nodig Latijnse - afkortingen plaatsen van de universiteiten die een eredoctoraat verleenden.
In Nederland is het ongebruikelijk onder juristen om hun juridische doctorstitel te voeren: Toen de meestertitel niet meer aan het doctoraat, maar aan het doctoraal verbonden werd, voerden juristen uit historische overwegingen niet de drs.
Dat laatste is ook de reden dat de meestertitel aan andere titels voorafgaat. Zijn zij daarentegen gepromoveerd niet in het recht, dan voeren zij die doctorstitel wel welke dan voorafgaat aan de meestertitel.
Hoogleraren die met emeritaat pensioen zijn, kunnen in plaats van prof. Ook bij geestelijken wordt de kerkelijke titel of functie vooraan gezet vb.
Een graad uit de bachelor-masterstructuur wordt altijd postnominaal  geplaatst, met andere woorden graden behaald in het hoger onderwijs worden achter de naam geplaatst: De bachelorgraad is equivalent met oude graden van hogescholen bc.
Op grond van art. De in het buitenland gebruikte graad PhD komt overeen met de doctorsgraad , maar is niet beschermd door de Nederlandse wet.
Jansen, MBA is dus toegestaan, maar de combinatie drs. Voor zover er sprake van verschillende internationale graden is, zijn combinaties daarvan toegestaan.
Iemand die een opleiding heeft afgerond aan een niet in Nederland gevestigde instelling voor hoger onderwijs en daarmee in dat land gerechtigd is tot het voeren van een graad achter de naam, is tevens gerechtigd die graad in Nederland in de eigen naam tot uitdrukking te brengen op dezelfde wijze als in het desbetreffende land.Aber Italien darf man auch nicht unterschätzen. Aus in der Verlängerung durch Golden Goal. Zur Weltmeisterschaft in Spanien reiste man nicht als Favorit an. Die gesamtitalienische Meisterschaft wird zwischen zwölf Mannschaften der Serie A ermittelt. Olympia Verlag GmbH, 5. Italien gehörte damit zu den nur vier Mannschaften, die kein Spiel verloren. Mostrare soltanto commenti con "mi piace". Für die Auslosung der Qualifikationsgruppen , die am England , Costa Rica , Uruguay. Italien musste ab der Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am November wurde Italien als Ausrichter bekannt gegeben. Vuoi davvero eliminare il post? Serie D Girone A 18 Vereine. In diesem Sinne, auf ein spannendes Finale!